Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation-Textbook

This amazing book about Industrial Instrumentation is written by written by Tony R. Kuphaldt.  This book is a copyrighted work, but licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License. To view a copy of this license, turn to Appendix F, or visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.

https://www.technocrazed.com/4-6-series-versus-parallel-dc-circuitsContents
Preface
Chapter 1 Calculus
1.1 Introduction to calculus
1.2 The concept of differentiation
1.3 The concept of integration
1.4 How derivatives and integrals relate to one another
1.5 Symbolic versus numerical calculus
1.6 Numerical differentiation
1.7 Numerical integration
Chapter 2 Physics
2.1 Terms and Definitions
2.2 Metric prefixes
2.3 Areas and volumes
2.4 Unit conversions and physical constants
2.5 Dimensional analysis
2.6 The International System of Units
2.7 Conservation Laws
2.8 Classical mechanics
2.9 Simple machine
2.10 Elementary thermodynamics
2.11 Fluid mechanic
Chapter 3 Chemistry
3.1 Terms and Definitions
3.2 Atomic theory and chemical symbols
3.3 Periodic table of the elements
3.4 Electronic structure
3.5 Spectroscopy
3.6 Formulae for common chemical compounds
3.7 Molecular quantities
3.8 Stoichiometry
3.9 Energy in chemical reactions
3.10 Periodic table of the ions
3.11 Ions in liquid solutions
3.12 pH
Chapter 4 DC electricity
4.1 Electrical voltage
4.2 Electrical current
4.3 Electrical sources and loads
4.4 Electrical power
4.5 Electrical resistance and Ohm’s Law
4.6 Series versus parallel circuits
4.7 Kirchhoff’s Laws
4.8 Circuit fault analysis
4.9 Bridge circuits
4.10 Null-balance voltage measurement
4.11 Electromagnetism
4.12 Capacitors
4.13 Inductors
Chapter 5 AC electricity
5.1 RMS quantities
5.2 Resistance, Reactance, and Impedance
5.3 Series and parallel circuits
5.4 Transformers
5.5 Phasors
5.6 The s variable
5.7 Transfer function analysis
5.8 Polyphase AC power
5.9 Phasor analysis of transformer circuits
5.10 Transmission lines
5.11 Antennas
Chapter 6 Introduction to industrial instrumentation
6.1 Example: boiler water level control system
6.2 Example: wastewater disinfection
6.3 Example: chemical reactor temperature control
6.4 Other types of instruments
Chapter 7 Instrumentation documents
7.1 Process Flow Diagrams
7.2 Process and Instrument Diagrams
7.3 Loop diagrams
7.4 Functional diagrams
7.5 Instrument and process equipment symbols
7.6 Instrument identification tags
Chapter 8 Instrument connections
8.1 Pipe and pipe fittings
8.2 Tube and tube fittings
8.3 Electrical signal and control wiring
8.4 Fiber optics
Chapter 9 Discrete process measurement
9.1 “Normal” status of a switch
9.2 Hand switches
9.3 Limit switches
9.4 Proximity switches
9.5 Pressure switches
9.6 Level switches
9.7 Temperature switches
9.8 Flow switches
Chapter 10 Discrete control elements
10.1 On/off valves
10.2 Fluid power systems
10.3 Solenoid valves
10.4 On/off electric motor control circuits
Chapter 11 Relay control systems
11.1 Control relays
11.2 Relay circuits
11.3 Interposing relays
Chapter 12 Programmable Logic Controllers
12.1 PLC examples
12.2 Input/Output (I/O) capabilities
12.3 Logic programming
12.4 Ladder Diagram (LD) programming
12.5 Structured Text (ST) programming
12.6 Instruction List (IL) programming
12.7 Function Block Diagram (FBD) programming
12.8 Sequential Function Chart (SFC) programming
12.9 Human-Machine Interfaces
12.10 How to teach yourself PLC programming
Chapter 13 Analog electronic instrumentation
13.1 4 to 20 mA analog current signals
13.2 Relating 4 to 20 mA signals to instrument variables
13.3 Controller output current loops
13.4 4-wire (“self-powered”) transmitter current loops
13.5 2-wire (“loop-powered”) transmitter current loops
13.6 4-wire “passive” versus “active” output transmitters
13.7 Troubleshooting current loops
Chapter 14 Pneumatic instrumentation
14.1 Pneumatic sensing elements
14.2 Self-balancing pneumatic instrument principles
14.3 Pilot valves and pneumatic amplifying relays
14.4 Analogy to opamp circuits
14.5 Analysis of practical pneumatic instruments
14.6 Proper care and feeding of pneumatic instruments
14.7 Advantages and disadvantages of pneumatic instruments
Chapter 15 Digital data acquisition and networks
15.1 Digital representation of numerical data
15.2 Digital representation of text
15.3 Analog-digital conversion
15.4 Analog signal conditioning and referencing
15.5 Digital data communication theory
15.6 EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 networks
15.7 Ethernet networks
15.8 Internet Protocol (IP)
15.9 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
15.10 The HART digital/analog hybrid standard
15.11 Modbus
Chapter 16 FOUNDATION Fieldbus instrumentation
16.1 FF design philosophy
16.2 H1 FF Physical layer
16.3 H1 FF Data Link layer
16.4 FF function blocks
16.5 H1 FF device configuration and commissioning
16.6 H1 FF segment troubleshooting
Chapter 17 Wireless instrumentation
17.1 Radio systems
17.2 WirelessHART
Chapter 18 Instrument calibration
18.1 Calibration versus re-ranging
18.2 Zero and span adjustments (analog instruments)
18.3 Calibration errors and testing
18.4 Damping adjustments
18.5 LRV and URV settings, digital trim (digital transmitters)
18.6 An analogy for calibration versus ranging
18.7 Calibration procedures
18.8 Instrument turndown
18.9 NIST traceability
18.10 Practical calibration standards
Chapter 19 Continuous pressure measurement
19.1 Manometers
19.2 Mechanical pressure elements
19.3 Electrical pressure elements
19.4 Force-balance pressure transmitters
19.5 Differential pressure transmitters
19.6 Pressure sensor accessories
19.7 Process/instrument suitability
Chapter 20 Continuous level measurement
20.1 Level gauges (sightglasses)
20.2 Float
20.3 Hydrostatic pressure
20.4 Displacement
20.5 Echo
20.6 Weight
20.7 Capacitive
20.8 Radiation
20.9 Level sensor accessories
Chapter 21 Continuous temperature measurement
21.1 Bi-metal temperature sensors
21.2 Filled-bulb temperature sensors
21.3 Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)
21.4 Thermocouples
21.5 Non-contact temperature sensors
21.6 Temperature sensor accessories
21.7 Process/instrument suitability
Chapter 22 Continuous fluid flow measurement
22.1 Pressure-based flowmeters
22.2 Laminar flowmeters
22.3 Variable-area flowmeters
22.4 Velocity-based flowmeters
22.5 Positive displacement flowmeters
22.6 Standardized volumetric flow
22.7 True mass flowmeters
22.8 Weighfeeders
22.9 Change-of-quantity flow measurement
22.10 Insertion flowmeters
22-11 Process/Instrument suitability
Chapter 23 Continuous analytical measurement
23.1 Conductivity measurement
23.2 pH measurement
23.3 Chromatography
23.4 Introduction to optical analyses
23.5 Dispersive spectroscopy
23.6 Non-dispersive Luft detector spectroscopy
23.7 Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) spectroscopy
23.8 Laser spectroscopy
23.9 Fluorescence
23.10 Chemiluminescence
23.11 Analyzer sample systems
23.12 Safety gas analyzers
Chapter 24 Machine vibration measurement
24.1 Vibration physics
24.2 Vibration sensors
24.3 Monitoring hardware
24.4 Mechanical vibration switches
Chapter 25 Electric power measurement and control
25.1 Introduction to power system automation
25.2 Electrical power grids
25.3 Interconnected generators
25.4 Single-line electrical diagrams
25.5 Circuit breakers and disconnects
25.6 Electrical sensors
25.7 Introduction to protective relaying
25.8 ANSI/IEEE function number codes
25.9 Instantaneous and time-overcurrent (50/51) protection
25.10 Differential (87) current protection
25.11 Directional overcurrent (67) protection
25.12 Distance (21) protection
25.13 Auxiliary and lockout (86) relays
Chapter 26 Signal characterization
26.1 Flow measurement from differential pressure
26.2 Flow measurement in open channels
26.3 Material volume measurement
26.4 Radiative temperature measurement
Chapter 27 Control valves
27.1 Sliding-stem valves
27.2 Rotary-stem valves
27.3 Dampers and louvres
27.4 Valve packing
27.5 Valve seat leakage
27.6 Control valve actuators
27.7 Valve failure mode
27.8 Actuator bench-set
27.9 Pneumatic actuator response
27.10 Valve positioners
27.11 Split-ranging
27.12 Control valve sizing
27.13 Control valve characterization
27.14 Control valve problems
Chapter 28 Variable-speed motor controls
28.1 DC motor speed control
28.2 AC motor speed control
28.3 AC motor braking
28.4 Motor drive features
28.5 Use of line reactors
28.6 Metering pumps
Chapter 29 Closed-loop control
29.1 Basic feedback control principles
29.2 Diagnosing feedback control problems
29.3 On/off control
29.4 Proportional-only control
29.5 Proportional-only offset
29.6 Integral (reset) control
29.7 Derivative (rate) control
29.8 Summary of PID control terms
29.9 P, I, and D responses graphed
29.10 Different PID equations
29.11 Pneumatic PID controllers
29.12 Analog electronic PID controllers
29.13 Digital PID controllers
29.14 Practical PID controller features
29.15 Digital PID algorithms
29.16 Note to students
Chapter 30 Process dynamics and PID controller tuning
30.1 Process characteristics
30.2 Before you tune . . .
30.3 Quantitative PID tuning procedures
30.4 Heuristic PID tuning procedures
30.5 Tuning techniques compared
30.6 Note to students
Chapter 31 Basic process control strategies
31.1 Supervisory control
31.2 Cascade control
31.3 Ratio control
31.4 Relation control
31.5 Feedforward control
31.6 Feedforward with dynamic compensation
31.7 Limit, Selector, and Override controls
31.8 Techniques for analyzing control strategies
Chapter 32 Process safety and instrumentation
32.1 Classified areas and electrical safety measures
32.2 Concepts of probability
32.3 Practical measures of reliability
32.4 High-reliability systems
32.5 Overpressure protection devices
32.6 Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems
Chapter 33 Instrumentation cyber-security
33.1 Stuxnet
33.2 Motives
33.3 Lexicon of cyber-security terms
33.4 Design-based fortifications
33.5 Policy-based fortifications
Chapter 34 Problem-solving and diagnostic strategies
34.1 Learn principles, not procedures
34.2 Active reading
34.3 General problem-solving techniques
34.4 Mathematical problem-solving techniques
34.5 Problem-solving by simplification
34.6 Scientific system diagnosis
34.7 Common diagnostic mistakes
34.8 Helpful “tricks” using a digital multimeter (DMM)
Appendix A Flip-book animations
A.1 Polyphase light bulbs animated
A.2 Polyphase induction motor animated
A.3 Rotating phasor animated
A.4 Differentiation and integration animated
A.5 Guided-wave radar level measurement
A.6 Basic chromatograph operation
Appendix B Doctor Strangeflow, or how I learned to relax and love Reynolds numbers
Appendix C Disassembly of a sliding-stem control valve
Appendix D How to use this book – some advice for teachers
D.1 Teaching technical theory
D.2 Teaching technical practices (labwork)
D.3 Teaching diagnostic principles and practices
D.4 Practical topic coverage
D.5 Principles, not procedures
D.6 Assessing student learning
D.7 Common educational fallacies
D.8 Summary
Appendix E Contributors
F Creative Commons Attribution License

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