# Lessons in Electric Circuits-Vol. 4-Digital

This amazing book about digital in basic electrical and electronics engineering was written by Tony R. Kuphaldt and it was released under the Design Science License. These terms and conditions allow for free copying, distribution, and/or modification of this document by the general public. After that this book has been updated by numerous contributors.

Master Index
Chapter 1: Numeration Systems
1.1 Numbers and Symbols
1.2 Systems of Numeration
1.3 Decimal versus Binary Numeration
1.5 Octal and Hexadecimal to Decimal Conversion
1.6 Conversion From Decimal Numeration
Chapter 2: Binary Arithmetic

2.1 Numbers versus Numeration
2.3 Negative Binary Numbers
2.4 Binary Subtraction
2.5 Binary Overflow
2.6 Bit Grouping
Chapter 3: Logic Gates

3.1 Digital Signals and Gates
3.2 The NOT Gate
3.3 The “Buffer” Gate
3.4 Multiple-input Gates
3.5 TTL NAND and AND gates
3.6 TTL NOR and OR gates
3.7 CMOS Gate Circuitry
3.8 Special-output Gates
3.9 Gate Universality
3.10 Logic Signal Voltage Levels
3.11 DIP Gate Packaging
Chapter 4: Switches

4.1 Switch Types
4.2 Switch Contact Design
4.3 Contact “Normal” State and Make/Break Sequence
4.4 Contact “Bounce”
Chapter 5: Electromechanical Relays

5.1 Relay Construction
5.2 Contactors
5.3 Time-delay Relays
5.4 Protective Relays
5.5 Solid-state Relays

6.2 Digital Logic Functions
6.3 Permissive and Interlock Circuits
6.4 Motor Control Circuits
6.5 Fail-safe Design
6.6 Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)
Chapter 7: Boolean Algebra

7.1 Introduction to Boolean Algebra
7.2 Boolean Arithmetic
7.3 Boolean Algebraic Identities
7.4 Boolean Algebraic Properties
7.5 Boolean Rules for Simplification
7.6 Circuit Simplification Examples
7.7 The Exclusive-OR Function: The XOR Gate
7.8 DeMorgan’s Theorems
7.9 Converting Truth Tables into Boolean Expressions
Chapter 8: Karnaugh Mapping

8.1 Introduction to Karnaugh Mapping
8.2 Venn Diagrams and Sets
8.3 Boolean Relationships on Venn Diagrams
8.4 Making a Venn Diagram Look Like a Karnaugh Map
8.5 Karnaugh Maps, Truth Tables, and Boolean Expressions
8.6 Logic Simplification With Karnaugh Maps
8.7 Larger 4-variable Karnaugh Maps
8.8 Minterm vs Maxterm Solution
8.9 Sum and Product Notation
8.10 Don’t Care Cells in the Karnaugh Map
8.11 Larger 5 & 6-variable Karnaugh Maps
Chapter 9: Combinational Logic Functions

9.1 Introduction to Combinational Logic Functions
9.4 Decoder
9.5 Encoder
9.6 Demultiplexers
9.7 Multiplexers
9.8 Using Multiple Combinational Circuits
Chapter 10: Multivibrators

10.1 Digital Logic With Feedback
10.2 The S-R Latch
10.3 The Gated S-R Latch
10.4 The D Latch
10.5 Edge-triggered Latches: Flip-Flops
10.6 The J-K Flip-Flop
10.7 Asynchronous Flip-Flop Inputs
10.8 Monostable Multivibrators
Chapter 11: Sequential Circuits

11.1 Binary Count Sequence
11.2 Asynchronous Counters
11.3 Synchronous Counters
11.4 Counter Modulus
11.5 Finite State Machines
Chapter 12: Shift Registers

12.1 Introduction to Shift Registers
12.2 Shift Registers: Serial-in, Serial-out
12.3 Shift Registers: Parallel-in, Serial-out (PISO) Conversion
12.4 Shift Registers: Serial-in, Parallel-out (SIPO) Conversion
12.5 Universal Shift Registers: Parallel-in, Parallel-out
12.6 Ring Counters
Chapter 13: Digital-Analog Conversion

13.1 Introduction to Digital-Analog Conversion
13.2 The R/2nR DAC: Binary-Weighted-Input Digital-to-Analog Converter
13.3 The R/2R DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter)
13.10 Practical Considerations of ADC Circuits
Chapter 14: Digital Communication

14.1 Introduction to Digital Communication
14.2 Networks and Busses
14.3 Data Flow
14.4 Electrical Signal Types
14.5 Optical Data Communication
14.6 Network Topology
14.7 Network Protocols
14.8 Practical considerations – Digital Communication
Chapter 15: Digital Storage (Memory)

15.1 Why digital?
15.2 Digital Memory Terms and Concepts
15.3 Modern Nonmechanical Memory
15.4 Historical, Nonmechanical Memory Technologies