# Tag: over protection systems

• ## 32.6 Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components designed to execute a specific safety-related task in the event of a specific dangerous condition. The over-temperature shutdown switch inside a clothes dryer or an electric water heater is a simple, domestic example of an SIF, shutting off the source of energy to the appliance in…

• ## 32.5 Overpressure protection devices

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as described by the formula F = PA. One practical consequence of this fact is that process vessels and pipelines may catastrophically burst if subjected to excessive fluid pressure. If subjected to excessive vacuum, some vessels and piping may implode (collapse in on themselves). Not only do these…

• ## 32.4 High-reliability control systems

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety may be broadly divided into two categories: the safety hazards posed by malfunctioning instruments, and special instrument systems designed to reduce safety hazards of industrial processes. This section regards the first category. All methods of reliability improvement incur some extra cost on the operation, whether…

• ## 32.3 Practical measures of reliability

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the reliability (or conversely, the probability of failure) for common components, and for systems comprised of those components. As such, special terms and mathematical models have been developed to describe probability as it applies to component and system reliability. 32.3.1 Failure rate and MTBF Perhaps…

• ## 32.2 Concepts and laws of probability

While the term “probability” may evoke images of imprecision, probability is in fact an exact mathematical concept: the ratio a specific outcome to total possible outcomes where 1 (100%) represents certainty and 0 (0%) represents impossibility. A probability value between 1 and 0 describes an outcome that occurs some of the time but not all of the…

• ## Chapter 32 Industrial Process Safety and Instrumentation

This chapter discusses instrumentation issues related to industrial process safety. Instrumentation safety may be broadly divided into two categories: how instruments themselves may pose a safety hazard (electrical signals possibly igniting hazardous atmospheres), and how instruments and control systems may be configured to detect unsafe process conditions and automatically shut an unsafe process down. In…