Tag: Flowmeters

22.10 Insertion flowmeters
This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but rather a design that may be implemented for several different kinds of flow measurement technologies. When the pipe carrying process fluid is large in size, it may be impractical or costprohibitive to install a fulldiameter flowmeter to measure fluid flow rate. A practical alternative…

22.9 Changeofquantity flow measurement
Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to another over time. So far this chapter has explored technologies for measuring flow rate en route from source to destination. However, a completely different method exists for measuring flow rates: measuring how much material has either departed or arrived at the terminal locations…

22.8 Weighfeeders
A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the weighfeeder. One of the most common weighfeeder designs consists of a conveyor belt with a section supported by rollers coupled to one or more load cells, such that a fixed length of the belt is continuously weighed: The load cell measures the weight of…

22.7 True mass flowmeters
Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow rate of the moving fluid. Velocitybased flowmeters such as magnetic, vortex, turbine, ultrasonic, and optical generate output signals proportional to the speed of fluid molecules and nothing else. This means that if the fluid flowing through one of these flowmeter types were to suddenly become denser (while still…

22.6 Standardized volumetric flow
The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of interpreting fluid flow based on the velocity of the fluid. Magnetic, ultrasonic, turbine, and vortex flowmeters are prime examples, where the sensing elements (of each meter type) respond directly to fluid velocity. Translating fluid velocity into volumetric flow is quite simple, following this equation: Where, Q = Volumetric…

22.5 Positive displacement flowmeters
A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass a fixed volume of fluid through with every cycle. Every cycle of the meter’s mechanism displaces a precisely defined (“positive”) quantity of fluid, so that a count of the number of mechanism cycles yields a precise quantity for the total fluid volume passed through the flowmeter. Many positive…

22.4 Velocitybased flowmeters
The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass density (ρ), crosssectional pipe area (A) and average velocity (v) must remain constant through any continuous length of pipe: If the density of the fluid is not subject to change as it travels through the pipe (a very good assumption for liquids), we…

22.3 Variablearea flowmeters
An variablearea flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a restriction whose area increases with flow rate. This stands in contrast to flowmeters such as orifice plates and venturi tubes where the crosssectional area of the flow element remains fixed. 22.3.1 Rotameters The simplest example of a variablearea flowmeter is the rotameter, which uses a solid object…

22.2 Laminar flowmeters
A unique form of differential pressurebased flow measurement deserves its own section in this flow measurement chapter, and that is the laminar flowmeter. Laminar flow is a condition of fluid motion where viscous (internal fluid friction) forces greatly overshadow inertial (kinetic) forces. A flowstream in a state of laminar flow exhibits no turbulence, with each fluid molecule…

Chapter 22 Continuous fluid flow measurement
The measurement of fluid flow is arguably the single most complex type of process variable measurement in all of industrial instrumentation1 . Not only is there a bewildering array of technologies one might use to measure fluid flow – each one with its own limitations and idiosyncrasies – but the very nature of the variable itself…