# Tag: Principle Of Transformer

• ## 9.8 Practical Considerations – Transformers

Power Capacity As has already been observed, transformers must be well designed in order to achieve acceptable power coupling, tight voltage regulation, and low exciting current distortion. Also, transformers must be designed to carry the expected values of primary and secondary winding current without any trouble. This means the winding conductors must be made of…

• ## 9.7 Special Transformers and Applications

Impedance Matching Because transformers can step voltage and current to different levels, and because power is transferred equivalently between primary and secondary windings, they can be used to “convert” the impedance of a load to a different level. That last phrase deserves some explanation, so let’s investigate what it means. The purpose of a load…

• ## 9.6 Voltage Regulation

As we saw in a few SPICE analyses earlier in this chapter, the output voltage of a transformer varies some with varying load resistances, even with a constant voltage input. The degree of variance is affected by the primary and secondary winding inductances, among other factors, not the least of which includes winding resistance and…

• ## 9.5 Winding Configurations

Transformers with Multiple Secondaries Transformers are very versatile devices. The basic concept of energy transfer between mutual inductors is useful enough between a single primary and single secondary coil, but transformers don’t have to be made with just two sets of windings. Consider this transformer circuit: Transformer with multiple secondaries provides multiple output voltages. Here,…

• ## 9.4 Phasing

Since transformers are essentially AC devices, we need to be aware of the phase relationships between the primary and secondary circuits. Using our SPICE example from before, we can plot the waveshapes for the primary and secondary circuits and see the phase relations for ourselves: spice transient analysis file for use with nutmeg: transformer v1…

• ## 9.3 Electrical Isolation

SPICE analysis of Electrical Isolation Aside from the ability to easily convert between different levels of voltage and current in AC and DC circuits, transformers also provide an extremely useful feature called isolation, which is the ability to couple one circuit to another without the use of direct wire connections. We can demonstrate an application…

• ## 9.2 Step-up and Step-down Transformers

So far, we’ve observed simulations of transformers where the primary and secondary windings were of identical inductance, giving approximately equal voltage and current levels in both circuits. Equality of voltage and current between the primary and secondary sides of a transformer, however, is not the norm for all transformers. If the inductances of the two…

• ## 9.1 Mutual Inductance and Basic Operation

Behaviors of Inductors wrapped around a Conductive Core Suppose we were to wrap a coil of insulated wire around a loop of ferromagnetic material and energize this coil with an AC voltage source: (Figure below (a)) Insulated winding on the ferromagnetic loop has inductive reactance, limiting AC current As an inductor, we would expect this…