# Tag: how logic gates work

• ## 3.11 DIP Gate Packaging

Digital logic gate circuits are manufactured as integrated circuits: all the constituent transistors and resistors built on a single piece of semiconductor material. The engineer, technician, or hobbyist using small numbers of gates will likely find what he or she needs enclosed in a DIP (Dual Inline Package) housing. DIP-enclosed integrated circuits are available with…

• ## 3.10 Logic Signal Voltage Levels

Logic gate circuits are designed to input and output only two types of signals: “high” (1) and “low” (0), as represented by a variable voltage: full power supply voltage for a “high” state and zero voltage for a “low” state. In a perfect world, all logic circuit signals would exist at these extreme voltage limits,…

• ## 3.9 Gate Universality

NAND and NOR gates possess a special property: they are universal. That is, given enough gates, either type of gate is able to mimic the operation of any other gate type. For example, it is possible to build a circuit exhibiting the OR function using three interconnected NAND gates. The ability for a single gate…

• ## 3.8 Special-output Gates

It is sometimes desirable to have a logic gate that provides both inverted and non-inverted outputs. For example, a single-input gate that is both a buffer and an inverter, with a separate output terminal for each function. Or, a two-input gate that provides both the AND and the NAND functions in a single circuit. Such…

• ## 3.7 CMOS Gate Circuitry

Up until this point, our analysis of transistor logic circuits has been limited to the TTL design paradigm, whereby bipolar transistors are used, and the general strategy of floating inputs being equivalent to “high” (connected to Vcc) inputs—and correspondingly, the allowance of “open-collector” output stages—is maintained. This, however, is not the only way we can…

• ## 3.6 TTL NOR and OR gates

Let’s examine the following TTL circuit and analyze its operation: Transistors Q1 and Q2 are both arranged in the same manner that we’ve seen for transistor Q1 in all the other TTL circuits. Rather than functioning as amplifiers, Q1 and Q2 are both being used as two-diode “steering” networks. We may replace Q1 and Q2…

• ## 3.5 TTL NAND and AND gates

Suppose we altered our basic open-collector inverter circuit, adding a second input terminal just like the first: This schematic illustrates a real circuit, but it isn’t called a “two-input inverter.” Through analysis, we will discover what this Circuit’s logic function is and correspondingly what it should be designated as. Just as in the case of…

• ## 3.4 Multiple-input Gates

The Use of Logic Gate Inverters and buffers exhaust the possibilities for single-input gate circuits. What more can be done with a single logic signal but to buffer it or invert it? To explore more logic gate possibilities, we must add more input terminals to the circuit(s). Adding more input terminals to a logic gate…

• ## 3.3 The Buffer Gate

If we were to connect two inverter gates together so that the output of one fed into the input of another, the two inversion functions would “cancel” each other out so that there would be no inversion from input to final output: While this may seem like a pointless thing to do, it does have…

• ## 3.2 The NOT Gate

The single-transistor inverter circuit illustrated earlier is actually too crude to be of practical use as a gate. Real inverter circuits contain more than one transistor to maximize voltage gain (so as to ensure that the final output transistor is either in full cutoff or full saturation), and other components designed to reduce the chance…

• ## 3.1 Digital Signals and Gates

While the binary numeration system is an interesting mathematical abstraction, we haven’t yet seen its practical application to electronics. This chapter is devoted to just that: practically applying the concept of binary bits to circuits. What makes binary numeration so important to the application of digital electronics is the ease in which bits may be…