12.8 Insulator Breakdown Voltage

The atoms in insulating materials have very tightly-bound electrons, resisting free electron flow very well. However, insulators cannot resist indefinite amounts of voltage. With enough voltage applied, any insulating material will eventually succumb to the electrical “pressure,” and then current flow will occur. However, unlike the situation with conductors where current is in linear proportion to applied voltage (given a fixed resistance), current through an insulator is quite nonlinear: for voltages below a certain threshold, virtually no current will flow, but if the applied voltage exceeds that threshold voltage (known as the breakdown voltage or dielectric strength), there will be a rush of current.

Dielectric strength is the voltage required to cause dielectric breakdown, that is, to force current through an insulating material. After dielectric breakdown, the material may or may not behave as an insulator any more, the molecular structure having been altered by the breach. There is usually a localized “puncture” of the insulating medium where the current flowed during breakdown.

The thickness of an insulating material plays a role in determining its breakdown voltage. Specific dielectric strength is sometimes listed in terms of volts per mil (1/1000 of an inch), or kilovolts per inch (the two units are equivalent), but in practice it has been found that the relationship between breakdown voltage and thickness is not exactly linear. An insulator three times as thick has a dielectric strength slightly less than 3 times as much. However, for rough estimation use, volt-per-thickness ratings are fine.

Material*Dielectric strength (kV/inch)
Air20 to 75
Porcelain40 to 200
Paraffin Wax200 to 300
Transformer Oil400
Bakelite300 to 550
Rubber450 to 700
Glass2000 to 3000

* = Materials listed are specially prepared for electrical use.


  • With a high enough applied voltage, electrons can be freed from the atoms of insulating materials, resulting in current through that material.
  • The minimum voltage required to “break” an insulator by forcing current through it is called the breakdown voltage or dielectric strength.
  • The thicker a piece of insulating material, the higher the breakdown voltage, all other factors being equal.
  • Specific dielectric strength is typically rated in one of two equivalent units: volts per mil, or kilovolts per inch.

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