18In its pure, theoretical form at least. In practice, even a single-lag circuit may oscillate given enough gain due to the unavoidable presence of parasitic capacitances and inductances in the wiring and components causing multiple orders of lag (and even some dead time). By the same token, even a “pure” first-order process will oscillate given enough controller gain due to unavoidable lags and dead times in the field instrumentation (especially the control valve). The point I am trying to make here is that there is more to the question of stability (or instability) than loop gain.