42I once had the misfortune of working on an analog PID controller for a chlorine-based wastewater disinfection system that lacked output tracking. The chlorine sensor on this system would occasionally fail due to sample system plugging by algae in the wastewater. When this happened, the PV signal would fail low (indicating abnormally low levels of chlorine gas dissolved in the wastewater) even though the actual dissolved chlorine gas concentration was adequate. The controller, thinking the PV was well below SP, would ramp the chlorine gas control valve further and further open over time, as integral action attempted to reduce the error between PV and SP. The error never went away, of course, because the chlorine sensor was plugged with algae and simply could not detect the actual chlorine gas concentration in the wastewater. By the time I arrived to address the “low chlorine” alarm, the controller output was already wound up to 100%. After cleaning the sensor, and seeing the PV value jump up to some outrageously high level, the controller would take a long time to “wind down” its output because its integral action was very slow. I could not use manual mode to “unwind” the output signal, because this controller lacked the feature of output tracking. My “work-around” solution to this problem was to re-tune the integral term of the controller to some really fast time constant, watch the output “wind down” in fast-motion until it reached a reasonable value, then adjust the integral time constant back to its previous value for continued automatic operation.