9It should not be assumed that such spikes are always undesirable. In processes characterized by long lag times, such a response may be quite helpful in overcoming that lag for the purpose of rapidly achieving new setpoint values. Slave (secondary) controllers in cascaded systems – where the controller receives its setpoint signal from the output of another (primary, or master) controller – may similarly benefit from derivative action calculated on error instead of just PV. As usual, the specific needs of the application dictate the ideal controller configuration.