22This is not to be confused with micro-turbulence in the fluid, which cannot be eliminated at high Reynolds number values. In fact, “fully-developed turbulent flow” is desirable for head-based meter elements such as orifice plates because it means the flow profile will be relatively flat (even velocities across the pipe’s diameter) and frictional forces (viscosity) will be negligible. The thing we are trying to avoid is large-scale turbulent effects such as eddies, swirl, and asymmetrical flow profiles, which compromise the ability of most flowmeters to accurate measure flow rate.