10With so many modern instruments being capable of digitally implementing this square-root function, one must be careful to ensure it is only done once in the loop. I have personally witnessed flow-measurement installations where both the pressure transmitter and the indicating device were configured for square-root characterization. This essentially performed a fourth root characterization on the signal, which is just as bad as no characterization at all! Like anything else technical, the key to successful implementation is a correct understanding of how the system is supposed to work. Simply memorizing that “the instrument must be set up with square-root to measure flow” and blindly applying that mantra is a recipe for failure.