5A “de facto” standard is one arising naturally out of legacy rather than by an premeditated agreement between parties. Modbus and Profibus networks are considered “de facto” standards because those networks were designed, built, and marketed by pioneering firms prior to their acceptance as standards for others to conform to. In Latin, de facto means “from the fact,” which in this case refers to the fact of pre-existence: a standard agreed upon to conform to something already in popular use. By contrast, a standard intentionally agreed upon before its physical realization is a de jure standard (Latin for “from the law”). FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an example of a de jure standard, where a committee arrives at a consensus for a network design and specifications prior to that network being built and marketed by any firm.