4Close-coupled hydraulic systems with variable-displacement pumps and/or motors may achieve high efficiency, but they are the exception rather than the rule. One such system I have seen was used to couple a diesel engine to the drive axle of a large commercial truck, using a variable-displacement pump as a continuously-variable transmission to keep the diesel engine in its optimum speed range. The system was so efficient, it did not require a cooler for the hydraulic oil!