24The fact that these impedance phasor quantities have fixed angles in AC circuits where the voltage and current phasors are in constant motion is not a contradiction. Since impedance represents the relationship between voltage and current for a component (Z = V∕I), this fixed angle represents a relative phase shift between voltage and current. In other words, the fixed angle of an impedance phasor tells us the voltage and current waveforms will always remain that much out of step with each other despite the fact that the voltage and current phasors themselves are continuously rotating at the system frequency (ω).