6These power losses take the form of core losses due to magnetic hysteresis in the ferrous core material, and winding losses due to electrical resistance in the wire coils. Core losses may be minimized by reducing magnetic flux density (H), which requires a core with a larger cross-section to disperse the flux (ϕ) over a wider area. Winding losses may be minimized by increasing wire gauge (i.e. thicker wire coils). In either case, these modifications make for a bulkier and more expensive transformer.