2This statement is not perfectly honest. When atoms join to form molecules, the subsequent release of energy is translated into an incredibly small loss of mass for the molecule, as described by Albert Einstein’s famous mass-energy equation E = mc2. However, this mass discrepancy is so small (typically less than one part per billion of the original mass!), we may safely ignore it for the purposes of understanding chemical reactions in industrial processes. This is what the humorous quote at the start of this chapter meant when it said “ignore the nuclear physicists at this point”.