23Preventive maintenance is not the only example of such a dynamic. Modern society is filled with monetarily expensive programs and institutions existing for the ultimate purpose of avoiding greater costs, monetary and otherwise. Public education, health care, and national militaries are just a few that come to my mind. Not only is it a challenge to continue justifying the expense of a well-functioning cost-avoidance program, but it is also a challenge to detect and remove unnecessary expenses (waste) within that program. To extend the preventive maintenance example, an appeal by maintenance personnel to continue (or further) the maintenance budget may happen to be legitimate, but a certain degree of self-interest will always be present in the argument. Just because preventive maintenance is actually necessary to avoid greater expense due to failure, does not mean all preventive maintenance demands are economically justified! Proper funding of any such program depends on the financiers being fair in their judgment and the executors being honest in their requests. So long as both parties are human, this territory will remain contentious.