20This “thought experiment” assumes no compensating action on the part of the feedback pH controller for the sake of simplicity. However, even if we include the pH controller’s efforts, the problem does not go away. As pH rises due to the premature addition of extra lime, the controller will try to reduce the lime feed rate. This will initially reduce the degree to which pH deviates from setpoint, but then the reverse problem will occur when the increased flocculant enters the vessel 55 seconds later. Now, the pH will drop below setpoint, and the feedback controller will have to ramp up lime addition (to the amount it was before the additional lime reached the vessel) to achieve setpoint.