## 32.3 Practical measures of reliability

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the reliability (or conversely, the probability of...

## 32.2 Concepts and laws of probability

While the term “probability” may evoke images of imprecision, probability is in fact an exact mathematical...

## Chapter 32 Industrial Process Safety and Instrumentation

This chapter discusses instrumentation issues related to industrial process safety. Instrumentation safety may be...

## 31.8 Techniques for analyzing control strategies

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those containing limit and selector functions can be quite...

## 31.7 Limit, Selector, and Override controls

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal relays or function blocks with the ability to switch...

## 31.6 Feedforward with dynamic compensation

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability of a feedback control system in the face of...

## 31.5 Feedforward control

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy capable of managing a great many types of process problems....

## 31.4 Relation control

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This is similar to ratio control in that a...

## 31.3 Ratio control

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of adjusting water temperature using two hand valves as...

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this: Information from the measuring device...

## Chapter 31 Basic Process Control Strategies and Control System Configurations

In a simple control system, a process variable (PV) is measured and compared with a setpoint value (SP). A manipulated...

## 30.6 Tuning PID Controllers

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice. Regardless of how thoroughly you may study the...

## 30.5 A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation program illustrating the effectiveness of...

## 30.4 Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical values for P, I, and D controller settings are...

## 30.3 Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading directly to a set of numerical values...
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